Dr. Benjamin Bikman - 'Insulin vs. Ketones - The Battle for Brown Fat'

  • Published on Mar 17, 2017
  • Dr. Benjamin Bikman earned his Ph.D. in Bioenergetics and was a postdoctoral fellow with the Duke-National University of Singapore in metabolic disorders. He is currently a professor of pathophysiology and a biomedical scientist at Brigham Young University in Utah.
    Dr. Bikman's professional focus as a scientist and professor is to better understand chronic modern-day diseases, with a special emphasis on the origins and consequences of obesity and diabetes, with an increasing scrutiny of the pathogenicity of insulin and insulin resistance. He frequently publishes his research in peer-reviewed journals and presents at international science meetings.
    Dr. Bikman has long been an advocate of a ketogenic diet in light of the considerable evidence supporting its use as a therapy for reversing insulin resistance. His website InsulinIQ.com promotes dietary clarity, healing, and freedom through evidence-based science about insulin resistance. Employing cell-autonomous to whole-body systems, Dr. Bikman's recent efforts have focused on exploring the intimate associations between the metabolic and immune systems.
  • Science & TechnologyScience & Technology

Comments • 496

  • Mabel Heinzle
    Mabel Heinzle 11 days ago

    Thank you Sir - this knowledge will save lives

  • Bernardo Rojas
    Bernardo Rojas 12 days ago

    Has anyone else heard👂 that sea kelp consumption help with the conversion of WAT tissue to BAT for body absorption through the blood and out through the lungs as CO2. Fat turns to CO2 then as opposed to getting sweated out ?

  • K-R PEN
    K-R PEN 21 day ago


  • Fused Chromosome
    Fused Chromosome 28 days ago

    Exceptional presentation.

  • thecrazychef1
    thecrazychef1 Month ago

    I've heard low carb makes your eyebrows fall off 😬

  • Tempo Rary
    Tempo Rary Month ago

    Fat is fuel or insulation, both to keep your body warm. You can eat it ...or wear it. Not a hard choice for mwah

  • theothertroll
    theothertroll 2 months ago

    His sniffing is horrific 😵‍💫

  • Whatever this is
    Whatever this is 2 months ago

    It's evolution, we've been hunter gatherers for millions of years, farmers for no time at all, 10,000 years or so. We've evolved to store fat in the warm seasons, eating fruits, starches, meats etc. It's a high insulin time. During the long cold winters when it snowed, we could only hunt for food and we'd be eating low carb, low calorie. Our body knows what season it is, that's why you can increase brown fat with extended periods of cold, but also by a ketogenic diet. Hunter gathers were forced to eat keto every year when it was freezing cold, the brown fat helped us survive the winters.

  • Alan Price
    Alan Price 3 months ago

    I watch multiple talks on ketogenic lifestyle and follow one!
    Nobody ever mentions caloric over consumption?
    To a minor state I understand that we breath and urinate ketone waste, but what about larger excess calories from fat/protein!
    Is this when gluconeogenesis occurs and stores the converted fat/protein as fat deposits, white fat cells?
    Do we know what level of caloric excess level this would occur, otherwise we're saying in theory we could consume massive amounts of calories on a keto diet and never gain weight, because we never enter an anobolic state?
    For instance we need excess calories to build muscle, there's many keto advocates that weight train for muscle gain, so they have to enter an anabolic state through gluconeogenesis.
    Many thanks, fascinating talk.

  • Roger Bird
    Roger Bird 3 months ago

    I love this guy. His thinking is so clear and easy to understand. I think I'm going to subscribe to his channel, if he has one.

  • Michael Dillon
    Michael Dillon 3 months ago

    This ties up with something I heard on a Dr Fung talk where he mentioned that nearly a hundred years ago it was discovered that diabetics ( insulin deficient !) expend about 30O kcalories a day . Incidentally I saw a documentary about brown adipose tissue on TV at least 30 years ago , so like a lot of this knowledge it has been around for years . Thank goodness these brilliant people are putting all this knowledge together and applying it in the clinical setting ( goodness knows we desperately need it ) . Great talk doctor 👍

  • David McIver
    David McIver 3 months ago

    On a keto diet I continue to lose weight although I am eating a lot more. I am never hungry, have tons of energy at 76 ( 4 hours of pickleball 5 days a week) and the brain seems to be cooking well.

  • Mike Smith
    Mike Smith 5 months ago +2

    As a new type two diabetic, and spending my career in the medical field, I couldn’t figure out why they were not testing insulin level or output. If I’m insulin resistant can you don’t know the insulin output of the pancreas how in the world would giving More insulin solve the problem.

  • Ed Lauren
    Ed Lauren 5 months ago

    Interesting presentation, great speaker. Western Blot scans look very poor (it is from over a decade in the lab experience).

  • Peter J Williams
    Peter J Williams 6 months ago

    These lab critters, do the have a gaul bladder?

  • Benyamin Mentchale
    Benyamin Mentchale 7 months ago

    I have a question regarding Keaton.
    Are Ketons used, as an input, to create energy, in the cell?
    Are Ketons, the output, of the energy creating process, in the cell?

  • Paul McKinnon
    Paul McKinnon 7 months ago

    Is there a simple point of care or home test for insulin. Can C peptide work?

  • Iamgoodatgames?
    Iamgoodatgames? 7 months ago +1

    This explains a lot about hunter gatherers. There are two modes for human. Hunters eat meat, sleep without proper shelter, and can’t store too much fat to the point of slowing down, so it breaks up fat and waste it while making heat to provide cold resistance, and the hunts are normally more than a day’s meal, making wasting not a big problem. For gatherers who eat grains and fruit, the opposite happens so they store fat due to not always having enough food to go around and lower metabolism, until we are able to produce more than enough calories from fruits and grains.

  • Bart Vertrees
    Bart Vertrees 7 months ago

    There are things that happen to those people with diabetes, that you are not taking into consideration. "Insulin" is the only way given to control their disease. I have been trying to find a way to adjust my diet (not to lose weight) , but to stop chasing insulin levels with carbs. Or carbs with insulin.

  • RCHW
    RCHW 8 months ago +1

    Let’s face it, you don’t need to be a rocket scientist to figure that big pharma and big food have worked in tandem to keep us perpetually sick so they can monetise their government sponsored narrative to their advantage. That’s everything you need to know right there. Just saying..

  • Amazing Grace
    Amazing Grace 8 months ago +1

    Low carb LIFEstyle saved my LIFE!

  • Asar Cadyn
    Asar Cadyn 8 months ago

    The calorie model has wasting too. We breath out water and carbon dioxide.

  • Ben Zei
    Ben Zei 8 months ago

    Really good lecture, easy to understand. Great career choice as a professor

  • Jennifer Lewis
    Jennifer Lewis 9 months ago +1

    Wow! Who'd have thought the fact babies and toddlers are pot-bellied may be a key factor in the survival of the human race... Mind: Blown.

  • Ann Fraley
    Ann Fraley 9 months ago

    If ketones act on WAT to shift it to BAT, is this a possible support for exogenous ketones? And can the exogenous ketones fuel the brain. Not to take the place of ketogenic dieting, but in addition.

  • Dee Cord
    Dee Cord 9 months ago +1

    I am finding it impossible to get into ketosis! My body just wont produce them.....what can I do?

    • Rhys H
      Rhys H 6 months ago

      How are you measuring them?

    • Maia Allman
      Maia Allman 9 months ago +1

      Do you have the ketone urine strips? There is also a little machine which looks like a blood glucose monitor, that measures ketosis from a drop of blood. I would suggest initially to just drink water for three days, and monitor your daily progress by measuring. Good luck!

  • Ivy Snow Filly Videos
    Ivy Snow Filly Videos 9 months ago +3

    Why am I worried that they're gonna now tax the ketones we breathe out?

  • indravadan Dave
    indravadan Dave 9 months ago +1

    fasting even of 14 hrs produces a partial state of ketosis which will help loose some wt . so contnous e ating is harmful

  • indravadan Dave
    indravadan Dave 9 months ago

    3 provences where caloric intake is somewhat like western society due to better economic conditions these provinces have also diabetes, htn & cardiac diseases are increasing athought for science towork on

  • Greg Anikin
    Greg Anikin 9 months ago +2

    Russians eat pure fat - it’s called Salo. Delicious with green onion. Americans don’t like it

  • Gurneet Chatha
    Gurneet Chatha 9 months ago +2

    This subject should we part of School education

  • David Toney
    David Toney 9 months ago

    Are the effects of diabetes reversible as we drop insulin and glucose levels and get the condition under control ie; blurry vision when blood sugar levels are very high?

  • You Tuber
    You Tuber 10 months ago +1

    Hmm. I dropped from 220 to 180 on keto, and it wasn't subcutaneous white fat that I lost - it seems to mostly come out of my abdomen. I still have a bit of subq fat on belly and hips, but now I can suck my gut way in under my ribcage, which I most definitely could not pre-keto. This is why I think the fat lost was abdominal fat. And isn't that abdominal fat the brown fat? I thought losing brown fat was a good thing.

  • C.O Jones
    C.O Jones 10 months ago +1

    And we are still fat. What is the answer? We need answers.

  • Beyleh Music
    Beyleh Music 10 months ago +1


  • Chandra Minick
    Chandra Minick 11 months ago +2

    At the end of this video he talks about a wasting of energy accounting for the removal of some calories from the body inferring that the wasting of energy as well as the ideas of thermodynamics (calories in and calories out) and the endocrine system (hormonal regulation of what calories get burned) are three mechanisms that determine weight loss or gain.
    So basically this could explain because of the wasting of energy why calorie counting does not work for weight loss in the long run, and why eating an excess of fat calories on a ketogenic diet with intermittent fasting could cause weight loss even though the calories are higher than what we need for our daily or weekly maintenance calories. Rather than naming the video "The Fght for Brown Fat" it should have been named "Where is Your Calorie Counting God Now?"

  • Lifzgud
    Lifzgud Year ago

    Top class!

  • Sid Michael
    Sid Michael Year ago

    Can a damaged mitochondria be restored?

  • Sid Michael
    Sid Michael Year ago

    This isn't in visceral fat only subcutaneous fat right?

  • Trejo's World
    Trejo's World Year ago +4

    33:02 “Eat when you’re full.” That’s all I got from this talk and I’m doing it now!

  • Hạc Giấy Thiên gia


  • Harikrishnan Chandramohan

    Can anyone pls tell me how to use this diet on a diabetic patient on medication. My mom has to take medication three times a day on how can she possibly fast.

    • Maia Allman
      Maia Allman 9 months ago

      Hi, I'm also diabetic. I would suggest getting a continuous glucose monitor so your mom will know her BG every 5 minutes, less chance of going into hypoglycemia. Then she has to make sure that the long acting insulin is prescribed separately to the fast acting insulin, so she can inject them separately. Initially start keeping the long acting insulin at the same level as the doctor prescribed. Inject the quick acting insulin as required in response to the BG readings you see from your 5 minute readings. The body does produce some glucose in the blood by itself from other sources. Also, before you start, buy some ketone urine strips and make sure that your mom's ketones don't go over the safe level, as that is dangerous and will require hospitalisation for Diabetic Keto Acidosis, which is very dangerous.

    • j k
      j k 10 months ago +1

      From what I understand, look into going Keto first. As her insulin resistance improves, she'll start being able to reduce her medications (under doctor's supervision!). Intermittent fasting can follow after that!

  • Sid Michael
    Sid Michael Year ago

    My only question is how do I use my belly fat as energy?

    • Nitheesh Kumar
      Nitheesh Kumar 4 months ago


    • Jenny Gibbons
      Jenny Gibbons 6 months ago

      Fat burning only happens when insulin is at its lowest. Each time we eat we switch on insulin production and fat storage. Carbs produce the greatest insulin response. Lower carb intake to 20g or fewer works for most people. Don’t snack - raises insulin. 2 meals a day is most popular and has good results for fat loss. All fat loss is rapid at the beginning and gradually slows down. Stick with the low carb or zero carb and ignore the scales. Your body will eventually show great changes in shape and smaller clothing sizes, despite the bathroom scales. You’ll also feel like a new person but it’s all about time and patience, especially if you’re diabetic. Hope this helps.

    • Ivy Snow Filly Videos
      Ivy Snow Filly Videos 9 months ago

      Belly fat is usually the last to go. That last 5 lbs

    • Omar Perez
      Omar Perez 11 months ago

      By following a keto diet

  • Natural Instinct
    Natural Instinct Year ago

    thats why fat people don't become more resistant to cold lol

  • Arjun Suresh Raji

    Who are these 300+ people that disliked this video?

  • Chris Bartos
    Chris Bartos Year ago +1

    Seems like the reason our bodies want to produce heat is because famines tend to happen during the winter? And if you're not eating (fasting), you tend to shift into ketosis...? Although, when I'm in a few day fast, I tend to feel colder than usual.

  • Chappy P
    Chappy P Year ago

    So how long until doctors are advertising UCP injections to obese people and telling them to just watch TV with an ice pack and let the fat just melt away?

  • D. Davis
    D. Davis Year ago

    There a lot of thumb down idiots!🙄

  • Mike Griffin
    Mike Griffin Year ago

    Keto diets increase the risk of fatty livers. The various ketogenic diets that severely restrict all carbohydrates and replace them mostly with fats are associated with increased risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease or NAFLD (JAMA Intern Med, published online July 15, 2019). NAFLD can lead to diabetes, heart attacks, strokes, liver cancer and other cancers (Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, Jul 1, 2012;15(4):374-380). Ketogenic diets have also been associated with kidney stones, constipation, diarrhea, fatigue, headaches, bad breath, bone fractures, and an increase in LDL cholesterol that increases risk for heart disease. Ketogenic diets increase markers of cholesterol and inflammation, although they do lower triglycerides (Obesity, June 2019;27(6):971-981). www.drmirkin.com/nutrition/keto-diets-increase-risk-for-fatty-liver.html

    • j k
      j k 10 months ago +1

      Read all studies with a wary eye. The mouse study - check out what fats were used, and what the researchers considered low carb. Long term risks - epileptic patients have been using it for decades to control their disease. And the very source of NAFLD - overwhelming the liver with fructose which results in the formation of fat (not dietary fat).

    • Artman
      Artman Year ago

      I know some alcoholics on a keto diet who have no fat in their liver.

    • kickn-aDead-cat
      kickn-aDead-cat Year ago

      That’s strange because keto got rid of my fatty liver.

    • sogar
      sogar Year ago

      Low-carbohydrate diets have been shown to promote weight loss, decrease intrahepatic triglyceride content, and improve metabolic parameters of patients with obesity. These ketogenic diets also provoke weight loss in rodents. However, long-term maintenance on a ketogenic diet stimulates the development of NAFLD and systemic glucose intolerance in mice. The relationship between ketogenic diets and systemic insulin resistance in both humans and rodents remains to be elucidated.

  • rotzepimmel
    rotzepimmel Year ago

    Videos which start without sound creep me out. But maybe my ketamines are low...

  • Tiếng Anh Cơ Bản

    Th presentation was quite complicated to me. Any way, Thanks for sharing your idea!

  • Bilbo Beutlin
    Bilbo Beutlin Year ago

    Fantastic lecture Dr. Bikman
    How would you explain constant blood ketone levels between 0.1 and 0.5 mmol/L in subjects eating one meal per day consisting only of fatty fish and fatty meat?

    • Winsome Cohall
      Winsome Cohall 11 months ago

      What is your glucose measuring.. got to burn up the stored sugar then your ketones will go up also eating fatty cuts of mean and 20 grams carbs TOTAL not net carbs

  • J L
    J L Year ago +3

    For the year and a half, I've done 20-24 hr dry fasts 3-4 times a week. Also I've only taken daily cold showers. Now, I haven't totally stopped my carb in take, but I suspect the dry fasts have upregulated my mitochondrial activity and increased my brown fat. In the past when I would sleep (especially in the winter), I would curl up in my blanket all night long, especially during the winter. This has been since I was a kid. Now I find myself waking up in the night having to remove the blanket cause I feel hot. If I haven't thrown off my blanket, I'm a lot more sweaty as compared to before. The last time I did this regularly was when I was a kid. This was probably a time when I had more brown fat and wasn't the product of decades of carb intake.

  • Swooned
    Swooned Year ago

    How does keto work with althetetes?

  • David Pannell
    David Pannell Year ago

    Also I'm curious if there is a ceiling to this behavioral transfer between WAT & BAT and would the ceiling even be a substantial difference in a BMR bump?

  • David Pannell
    David Pannell Year ago

    At 15:50....is that mentioning using placebo's on non-humans? Is that even a placebo? Interesting. Amazing content though. Love the wealth of knowledge from Dr. Ben.

  • BRE Racing Team
    BRE Racing Team Year ago

    IS IT NORMAL????
    My 10 y/o son blood results:
    A1C 5,2
    Fasting blood Glucose 72.
    Fasting blood insulin 1,69.
    Is it bad that the insulin is too low??? But looks sufficient because the A1C is 5.2 and the fasting blood sugar is only 72.
    Also he’s not really underweight, but he’s on the lean side.
    Also he gets easily tired 😓 when playing soccer ⚽️.
    Hope to hear from you guys.
    I don’t know who to consult with. Regular doctor don’t understand metabolism.
    Thank you very much.

  • spaniol1997
    spaniol1997 Year ago

    So if you take an exogenous ketone supplement, while still taking in carbs that elevate insulin, do they cancel each other out or does one trump the other?

  • armadillotoe
    armadillotoe Year ago +2

    I have been very strictly to pretty much keto for about 18 months. I devour information on keto, health, and weight loss. This is the 1st time I have seen an actual reason why eating so much fat is a good thing when inducing ketosis. I hate blindly following instructions, and love knowing why I should do things. More dietary fat means less insulin. This also explains when I began the keto diet, I was so hot, and minimal exertion would cause me to sweat uncontrollably. I could take a long cold shower, and before I could dry off, I was sweating again. When fat is "burned" it actually is turned into carbon dioxide, and water. If you are more rapidly burning fat than can be expelled as water and carbon dioxide, breathing and whizzing out ketones (converted fat) makes perfect sense. This is the best explanation of the ketogenic diet I have ever seen.

    • kickn-aDead-cat
      kickn-aDead-cat Year ago +1

      The insulin roller coaster is what finally messes with your pancreas. That’s why doctors have it backwards they try to control glucose when they should be to controlling insulin for type 2.

  • Rosemary Freitas
    Rosemary Freitas Year ago +8

    As a health professional I find myself angry at the ignorance of our current dietary teachings. These have not helped anyone. I am so grateful that teachers such as Dr. Bikman are proving them wrong.

    • Ivy Snow Filly Videos
      Ivy Snow Filly Videos 9 months ago +2

      Me too. I started reading Dr.Atkins books 25 years ago. Its frustrating not many Dr's talk about nutrition. I'm happy to find this content.

  • Eduardo Castillo
    Eduardo Castillo Year ago

    The thing i never se clearly explained is of you can go into ketonegensis if you have insulin resistance or if our are in cetosis can you have insulin resistance at the same time

    • kickn-aDead-cat
      kickn-aDead-cat Year ago

      When you go into ketosis and virtually eliminating carbs it causes your blood sugar to go down. The idea is you need to keep your insulin low because it’s been overused over decades. that’s why doctors have it wrong and backwards. They think controlling the glucose is what makes you well, so what do they do they give you insulin if you’re diabetic. Insulin is a weight storage hormone. As any doctor will tell you that when you give a patient insulin they gain weight. When you reduce the insulin, the body can use the fat to fuel it self. Body is designed to do that it just has forgotten how. Or actually the mechanism has become damaged. So yes when are you going to ketosis you’re breaking the cycle of insulin resistance. I stabilizing the insulin roller coaster.

  • Inaki Legorburu
    Inaki Legorburu Year ago +2

    Great talk! What I found fascinating was the graph from the David Ludwig study starting at 26:30, where the metabolic rate for the low carb high fat diet continues to rise and stay high for 4-6 hours after the meal. Are there any other studies that have built on this study by looking at meal frequency and IF over a longer time span 24-72 hours?

  • Zen Life
    Zen Life Year ago +1

    I watched it once. Then sat down and watched it again this time taking NOTES. I needed to participate in order to fully absorb what he was teaching. Great stuff! Information like this helps people like me say no to carbs with a sense of purpose. No insulin thank you. I'll be eating ketones for the win. Go Chiefs!

  • Rusty Shackleford
    Rusty Shackleford Year ago +3

    I've been listening to keto advocates for years and I've never heard about white vs brown fat! Somebody tell Thomas Delauer.

    • spaniol1997
      spaniol1997 Year ago +1

      Rusty Shackleford TD already has videos talking about brown fat.

  • Muscles Mouse
    Muscles Mouse Year ago +1

    wow, this is happening in my body. I feel hotter and my wife feels the heat also. so the ketones she smells is my fat burning. this really helps me understand what is happening.

  • Liza Kiesling
    Liza Kiesling Year ago

    Does lowering of insulin result in lowering of LDL-P. And LDL-C?

    • kickn-aDead-cat
      kickn-aDead-cat Year ago

      Mine actually went 30 points lower. From 180 to 150. But my HDL went from 43 to 68. My triglycerides went from 100 to 64. Last two or more important.

    • Dan VanDeRiet
      Dan VanDeRiet Year ago

      No. For many low carb people their LDL jumps quite a bit (mine went from about 150 to 300). I think the same can happen with particle count (not quite as sure about that). For more info look for videos by Dave Feldman or Dr. Nadir Ali; or Dave's website cholesterol code.com.

  • Robert Chew
    Robert Chew Year ago +1

    Dr. Bikman knows this stuff so well. Love it. No notes or anything !!

  • OscarMikeOut
    OscarMikeOut Year ago

    With all this content, this channel is really underrated. Great stuff.

  • visionaryus
    visionaryus 2 years ago

    Sounds like our bodies need meat and fat, and can eat plants if very necessary and in eating the plants(carbohydrates) we produce more insulin to store fat when we have to resort to more of a plant diet in hard times basically.

  • Otto Kaharuddin
    Otto Kaharuddin 2 years ago

    Lesson learned, never listen to fat nutritionist.